Low birth weight babies are born at less than 2,500g, may be sufficient or premature. Sometimes born with birth defects.
The reasons below are considered potential causes of low birth weight in young children.
According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), low birth weight babies are born at less than 2,500g. If between 1,000g and 1,499g is considered very light, less than 1,000g is super light. One of the first causes of low birth weight is fetal infection.
This is a very hidden cause, especially when pregnant mothers suffer from a number of diseases such as colds, flu, some infections caused by viruses and parasites that make the fetus grow slowly, and increase birth defects. According to CDC, some of the following pathogens:
Cytomegalovirus and herpes virus are present in the body’s secretions, which are then passed on to the baby’s body. It increases neural tube defects and causes Down syndrome.
Rubella: often called German measles, this virus can cause birth defects such as mental retardation, hearing, vision and heart problems. Luckily, rubella can be prevented through measles, mumps and rubella (MMR).
Chickenpox: exposure to this virus during pregnancy, especially for 6 months, can lead to increased congenital chickenpox syndrome, limb deformities, scarring, growth problems and mental disabilities.
Toxoplasmosis: this parasite infection during pregnancy is related to brain, hearing and vision defects. Parasites are abundant in undercooked meat and animal manure, especially cat feces.
Malformations hinder normal fetal development and lead to premature birth. For example, newborns develop problems such as large artery displacement or spinal spine disease (open spine). This is a phenomenon in which the neural tube does not open properly, the doctor will perform surgery for the child right in the womb and this is the cause of premature birth.
According to a recent study published in Obstetrics & Gynecology, congenital anomalies also cause a number of syndromes such as Down, Linefelter, Turner, Patau or Edwards syndrome and defects in lips and cleft palate .. .
Stress during pregnancy
Stress or stress is a disease that pregnant women often get. However, levels vary from person to person.
According to the Mother and Baby Counseling Center of the Clereland Clinic, when pregnant, the female body is pumped 40 – 50% more blood than normal, the heart works with a frequency of 30-50% compared to normal level. In addition to this pressure, the objective factors such as making a living, economic conditions … make women suffer a lot of stress and once the pressure is too great, the human capacity will arising premature and premature births.
Poor eating and malnutrition not only affect the mother and affect the future child. For example, folic acid is an essential nutrient for brain and spinal cord formation, protein is needed for children’s cell development, but once the nutrient depletes, the child develops slowly both physically and mentally. And for this reason, during pregnancy, if eating poorly will limit the growth of the child.
According to the American Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), it is reasonable for a woman to become pregnant when pregnant about 25 – 36 pounds (11-15 kg). To do this, the doctor recommends that women apply a scientific, rational menu, increase green vegetables, fruits, whole grains, lean meat, and eat regularly throughout the pregnancy. Limit foods with low nutritional value, sweets, and processed foods too. It is recommended to supplement 400mcg of folic acid / day within 3 months before pregnancy or the first 3 months of pregnancy to reduce spinal and skull defects after the birth.
The placenta malfunctions
The placenta is an intermediary rich in nutrients linked between the mother’s body and the baby, but once the function is compromised, compromise will hinder the child’s development and lead to low birth weight. The placental malfunction is very diverse, such as placental placenta disease, in which the placenta liquefies right in the cervix, covering the whole or part of the open mouth. Even if the placenta is detached, the placenta starts to separate from the uterine wall during pregnancy, or before birth.
The incidence of malfunctioning placenta affects about 1% of pregnancies and there are severe cases that reduce the delivery of oxygen to the child and the consequences that lead to premature and low birth weight.
When the fetus anchors to the uterus, the cervix closes to help the fetus develop and limit the occurrence of an infection, but when an incident occurs, such as an improper opening of the cervix, it affects the development process. The fetus and when the fetus develops will increase the pressure and give rise to premature birth.
To overcome this problem, the doctor often stitches the uterus so that the fetus develops steadily for 37-38 weeks or in some cases it must be closed in the bed. In addition, uterine fibroids, uterine malformations also make the baby develop incorrectly. For example, a uterine horn-shaped case instead of a oval or uterine chamber that is too small to allow the child to grow also produces premature, low birth weight.
Due to stimulants
According to ACOG experts, in recent decades, low birth weight, premature births have increased because of stimulant drugs, even over-the-counter drugs. For this reason pregnant women should stay away from stimulant drugs, regularly check the health of the fetus. Some stimulant drugs such as distant drugs, drugs, heroin, cocaine … are very toxic drugs that should be avoided, especially affecting children’s brain development, cognitive ability, and future learning. . In addition, alcohol can cause alcohol poisoning syndrome (FAS) for children and cause very high premature birth.
If a pregnant mother smokes or inhales tobacco smoke, it is also dangerous for the future child to double the birth weight and birth defects. The reason, in cigarettes there are many toxic chemicals like nicotine, tar, CO2 …
These are chemicals that interfere with oxygen transport and reduce the child’s growth. If a woman is more addicted to exposure to tobacco, the risk of premature birth, low birth weight is very high, so to limit the disadvantages, pregnant women should stay away from tobacco and tobacco smoke. dynamic (inhaling the smoke released by others).
Inflammatory disease of the mother
According to ACOG, women with chronic diseases such as diabetes, congenital heart disease or difficulty in pregnancy are at a high risk of preterm and low birth weight. If you intend to have a baby, consult a doctor to treat these diseases before conceiving or considering carefully, or should not give birth.
In this group, pregnancy complications are very high. For example, uterine infection or pre-eclampsia, hypertension can cause premature birth, low birth weight. Particularly, pre-eclampsia affects about 10% of pregnant women and is the culprit causing 15% of premature births and low birth weight in the world today.
Laying much, laying thick
According to CDC, women who give birth in a thick and fertile manner have the highest birth weight. For example, in the twins, the rate of preterm birth, low birth weight is 60% of triplets is 90% and 100% of births or more. The reason for this phenomenon is many, but mainly the uterus must work maximum, nutrient depletion, anemia, high blood pressure and many other neurological effects.